Research

Current CNBD Research Studies

Below is a list of current CNBD research studies. Subject tags will link you to study listings by topic. 

Developmental period: Prenatal, Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence

Perturbation: Substance Use, NutritionGenetic/Congenital/Developmental Condition, Prematurity, Social/Emotional DevelopmentBehavioral DevelopmentCognitive DevelopmentInstitutional Neglect/Deprivation

Research tools: Electrophysiology, Imaging, Autonomic System, Body Composition, CANTABEyetracker, Genetics/MicrobiometDCS/TMSTOVA

The development of attentional orienting to semantic salience in infancy: Concurrent associations between visual orienting and white matter development

Principal Investigator:

Jed Elison, PhD (Institute of Child Development)

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Collaborators:

Robin Sifre, Graduate Student (Institute of Child Development)

Abstract:

While a large body of work has charted the emergence of selective attention, less is known about the role that orienting to semantic salience plays in selective attention. Specifically, to what extent can experience with a stimulus modify its semantic salience, and how does the developing brain integrate these modifications into attentional biases? We intend to assess the extent to which reward-modulated semantic salience captures attention in infancy, and how structural brain development supports these abilities. We will focus on 7 to 9 months for two reasons: First, this period marks an important transition toward more sophisticated selective attention; thus, there should be high variability in orienting to semantic salience during this transition. Structural variability in neural circuitry could function as one source of this variance. Second, there is growing evidence suggesting that the social deficits observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be traced back to early differences in attention orienting and its relation to white matter microstructure at this age. This project will provide the first normative developmental trajectory of 1) infants’ attentional orienting to semantic salience, and 2) the white matter fiber bundles supporting this orienting ability, as a key first step toward studying this construct in infants considered at high-risk for ASD.

Utilizing eye-tracking to study the normative trajectory of social information processing

Principal Investigator:

Suma Jacob, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Psychiatry)

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Collaborators:

Sunday Francis, PhD (Department of Psychiatry), Amy Esler, PhD (Department of Pediatrics)

Abstract:

Social information processing includes many behaviors, deficits in some of these behaviors have been observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals through behavioral and neuroimaging studies. These impairments emerge early in development and persist over time, and may in part be related to atypical eye movements during assessment of visual stimuli containing social information.

We propose to examine the normal distribution of social information processing and how these capacities differ in our existing cohort of ASD individuals. The developmental trajectories of social information processing change over time, and need to be thoroughly characterized across a broad age of NTs and ASD individuals. Our clinical research team is currently studying novel drug treatments that improve social functioning throughout development. However, treatment outcome measures that reliability document changes in social information processing are limited in ASD. Studies of novel pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions would benefit from a non-invasive, easily measured, and accessible outcome measure that would provide a measurement of treatment efficacy. By collecting eye tracking and physiological data in typically developing individuals as they perform electronic visual tasks we aim to map the trajectory of social information processing in NTs. Improved characterization of the distribution of social information processing capacities in a neuro-typical cohort will provide a unique platform with which to compare individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs).

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